Brazil has about degree programs that are directly associated with Soil Departments, offering an average of about 1. Soil Science graduate programs in Brazil have been in existence for almost fifty years, and have played key roles in the intense transformations in soil science and agriculture. The training of generations of students and the knowledge produced in departments of soil science stimulated proper uses of soils and water, and could be considered at least partly responsible for the enviable economic position Brazil is enjoying at the moment Ceretta et al.
For example, three master and two doctoral programs were created in the last five years. All 15 soil science graduate programs are in public institutions, at either the federal or state levels, and have a total of faculty members.
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Graduate programs in soil science have provided one of the greatest returns on investment in research carried out in Brazil. This contribution is very likely to increase along with the impact of soil and water on the production of food, fiber, fuel, and environmental quality Ceretta et al. The author also reported that many of these scientific publications focus on Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition, with publications in basic areas, such as Soil Genesis and Morphology, Pedology, and Soil Science Teaching lacking somewhat.
Certain institutes engaged in research, technology transfer and other related to soil activities gained notoriety along with time, such as several Embrapa centres, Research State Foundations, Technology Transfer Institutions, Mining Companies, Institutes of Research and Statistics, private corporations and consultants. Currently, there are 65 Agricultural Research Centers, federal and state, most of them involving a team of soil scientists.
The institute goals are the development of research solutions, development and innovation in understanding soils and their interaction with the environment, and sustainability of tropical agriculture. Some of the most important activities developed include the ecological-economic zoning, the Brazilian Soil Classification System, soil surveys, proper use of fertilizers, among others.
The Brazilian Society of Soil Science is responsible for congregating professionals and instituitions in order to promote and develop Soil Science in Brazil. In the 2nd article of the SBCS creation statutes, the main objectives of the society are stated as follows: a to promote and improve association between partners and exchange of knowledge between those involved in research, education, disclosure or technical activities for a better use of soil and water in Brazil; b disseminate the knowledge on scientific methods and applied technologies for use, treatment and conservation of soil and water; c adapt and standardize nomenclature, methods of soil analysis, and quality control; d contribute to the organization of the Brazilian System of Soils Classification and soil surveys; f support the development of Soil Science-specialized libraries, museums, and databases in Soil Science.
In order to achieve these goals, SBCS has been promoting several special events and periodical meetings for exchange of knowledge among members, and disclosure of Soil Science studies. The graphic in figure 2 displays all 32 editions of the Brazilian Congress of Soil Science, showing the number of participants and papers. SBCS is also responsible for the Soil Correlation and Classification Meetings, an event in which pedologists discuss, among other things, how soil genesis, morphology and classification can be used in soil conservation, how it fits in the Brazilian Soil Classification System, and how the system can be improved.
Besides that, the SBCS also publishes the Brazilian Journal of Soil Science since , which is internationally indexed, receiving impact factor since and being the most important Soil Science publication in Brazil. Finally, the SBCS maintains a substantial number of specialized libraries and museums as a mean for fostering knowledge on Soil Science.
Currently, it has about 2 members, classified as official, inactive, foreign, honorary and students. In 63 years of activity, SBCS has been responsible for deep changes in the productivity of Brazilian agriculture and cattle raising, thanks to researches and studies produced by its associates in several national and international institutions. Brazilian Soil Science has always focused on healthy and sustainable ways of producing food. However, the importance of soils for the society, for future generations, will be more and more complex, demanding specific solutions for every single new issue that emerges.
In future decades, Soil Science will still remain topical in discussions regarding environment care and production of food and fibers. Moreover, it will have a determining role in the resolution of certain issues, such as water quality, poverty and development of renewable sources of energy. This perspective also suggests a special role for Brazil, based on its highly competitive agriculture, huge water reserves, and renewable sources of energy hydropower and biofuels.
In this context, Brazil is supposed to hold a strategic place in food production, since it is the only country among the others from the BRIC that can expand its agricultural space to an area roughly five times bigger than the current one FAO, Product exportation rises every year, due to the huge boost in production of food and biofuel. The income generated by this productivity increase allowed the maintenance of large ecosystem conservation areas. The agrarian sector in Brazil is effective and competitive due to the wide range of weather conditions, sufficient and seasonal rain falls in most of the territory, abundant solar radiation, and constantly upgraded and advanced technology.
Moreover, some In these areas, proper management and fertilization could obtain high productivity levels. The most important agricultural products in Brazil are soybean, corn, coffee, sugarcane, wheat, beans, cotton, sorghum, and fruits. Brazil is the main producer and exporter of sugar, ethanol, coffee, orange juice, tobacco, chicken and cattle meat, ranks second as producer and exporter of soybean grain, bran and oil and third as corn and fruit producer and exporter.
Brazil is also an important producer and exporter of cotton, leather and hides Silva et al. According to Siqueira et al. During the 31th edition of the biannual meeting of the SBCS, after 60 glorious years, the Brazilian Soil Science Society carried out an evaluation of all the challenges related to rising demands of food, water, and energy, as the population keeps growing, not always in harmony with the environment.
According to him, Brazilian Soil Science must elaborate more concrete goals in order to keep managing soil resources and to improve its public relations. Also, he suggested to rank priorities for soil research, elaborate soil degradation maps, apply research results in agricultural and industrial production, relocate human resources on graduate programs according to regional inequalities, elaborate and apply a solid legislation regarding the management, use and conservation of soil and water, and, finally, instruct citizens, society and government about the importance of soil, as it is an essential, complex and fragile natural resource.
Soil Sci. The discipline of Soil Science is not doing too badly under different skies. Rio de Janeiro, Tip. COGO, N. Gramado, SBCS, Economia do Brasil. Opportunities and risks arising from the use of Bioenergy for food security in Latin America. Trends in Soil Science education: Looking beyond the number of students, J.
Soil Water Conserv. Manual de chimica agricola. Geonomos, , Recife, SBCS, Manual do agricultor brasileiro. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License. Services on Demand Journal. Please choose www. Your GarlandScience.
The student resources previously accessed via GarlandScience. Resources to the following titles can be found at www. What are VitalSource eBooks? For Instructors Request Inspection Copy. Ethanol made from biomass rather than grains holds great promise, including numerous economic and environmental benefits. However, the adverse interactions of energy, climate, food, and soil quality cannot be ignored.h704063607.nichost.ru/cache/chloroquine-diphosphate-vs-azithromycin-medikamente.php
Switchgrass may be a good option for farmers who have lost fertile topsoil
In eight concise chapters, Soil Quality and Biofuel Production presents a state-of-the-knowledge review of soil properties and processes negatively impacted by crop residue removal. It outlines the ecological consequences of biofuels and evaluates land use in the production of raw material for biofuel.
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The book then spotlights pressing issues related to corn and cellulosic ethanol and also soil erosion. It offers advice for achieving economic balance in the competition for arable land between food and biofuel along with residue harvest management techniques.
SSS1 – History, Education and Society of Soil Science
The logistics of producing biomass in a sustainable manner remain a major challenge and will continue to be so for the foreseeable future. Soil Quality and Biofuel Production provides environmental scientists and agricultural engineers with the knowledge they need to address them. Johnson, Sharon K. Papiernik, Maysoon M. Mikha,Kurt A. Thank you for taking your time to send in your valued opinion to Science X editors. You can be assured our editors closely monitor every feedback sent and will take appropriate actions.
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Switchgrass may be a good option for farmers who have lost fertile topsoil
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