En , nombre de Cubains moururent en mer, en essayant de fuir Cuba sur des radeaux de fortune. Capone, b. No identity, no direction, no means towards salvation. The people were refreshed with the hope of faith and continued in their search for truth. They were able to contact those at home. Brandon, Le religieux est ici plus important que le politique.
Capone, a. Abraham , R. XXXI, 1, pp. Brown , David Hilary, , Garden in the Machine. Walking with the Night, Rochester, Ver. XXXI, 1. Conde , Yvonne M. The Untold Exodus of Santiago de Cuba, de octubre de Ciencias Sociales. Los Orichas.
Nunez , Luis Manuel, , Santeria. Letras Cubanas. Che malinconia! Double regard, terrible filtre, terrible basse-continue. Possibile che dagli occhi potesse entrare tanto turbamento e tanta mutazione? Non avrebbe saputo dirlo. Ma poi? Che cosa sarebbe accaduto, poi? Nei film che avevo visto, e nei romanzi, i baci avevano voglia a essere lunghi e appassionati. In an academic library the quality of the service offered to users represents, in principle, the extent to which the service meets the user s needs, expectations and requirements. Change in any component can affect, as one can notice in Figure1, the policy in the field of quality QFP.
In other words, QFP directly depends on the interests of the users as well as on the interests of the society and the library. Determination of policy in the field of quality QFP The Total Quality TQ is a concept one should take into consideration in order to ensure a functional academic library. TQ represents a set of methods organized under a global strategy with an aim at satisfying the users needs of information.
The total quality concept also involves the inclusion of the manager s responsibilities at the level of all the employees from all work departments, based on cooperation, without taking onto consideration the hierarchy.
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The user s reactions are extremely important. The obstacles that have to be coped with are also of consequence, such as: - taxes; - insufficient library staff training; - delayed service; - mismatch between the opening hours of the reading and loan facilities and the students daily programmed as well as the structure of the academic year; - poorly designed out of date web pages; - impolite librarians, etc. The users should be permanently consulted and their satisfaction should be a permanent ground of concern so as to yield a competition based system.
The periodical evaluation of the services offered by the academic library, by means of questionnaires is done in order to monitor the difficulties encountered by users. The analysis of the suggestions and complaints made by users and their solutions contributes to solving the dysfunctional aspects of the process. The analysis of the strong and weak points of the services provided leads to improvements in the of service quality.
The quality-objective should be permantly monitored so that the whole staff might contribute to obtaining the final result namely performance. In an academic library, the optimum quality of the services offered to the users is acquired through the combination effect of three important factors Figure 2 : Total Quality is obtained when the circle centers overlap Figure 2. In this case, the peak of the quality field value is equal to the circles surface reaching the target user s requirements at the same time.
Circles of service optimum quality Taking into consideration the opinions expressed in specialist literature one can emphasize the following trends in defining total quality: total quality is an organizational policy or strategy in the field of quality; total quality is a philosophy; the concepts of total quality and total quality management are directly correlated TQM ; total quality represents the aim, while total quality management is the means for implementing it.
The TQM concept in libraires The promotion of user centred the beneficiary of these services high-quality services, in the library activity, may be carried out through the application of the Total Quality Management TQM. Knowledge of the TQM principles as well as their implementation in the academic library may lead to an increase of the efficiency and the provision of a range of services of better quality. TQM represents a long-term strategy, an organization management system using specific techniques including statistic-mathematical ones in order to accomplish objectives such as: o meeting and even topping the users needs; o reaching a competitive market position through quality improvement; o developing a management system mainly through involving in quality issues the top management and then all the employees; o placing the users and their requirements at the center of their concerns.
TQM may be considered a complex process, a set of activities intended to ensure quality through the optimal use of the available human and financial resources. Even if TQM cannot be adopted on a large scale by non-profit organizations, its aspects focusing on quality and service provisions to users should be promoted both by the managers and by the employees of these organizations.
In the academic community customers are users, while the library provides them with services. By applying TQM to libraries one should take into consideration the following aspects: The promotion of the services offered may be implemented through: web pages, fliers, posters, library tours for user groups of, exhibitions, book and educaitonal fairs, etc. What do we want to accomplish? The change of attitude towards books? The change in library image? Communication of the collections? What types of users are there?
What is their educational background? What is their social status? What do they want? What do users know about library service provision? What do we intend to offer our users? What do we intend to communicate? What do users want to find out? What is the role of the library? To inform? To influence?
To train? To convince? Which information categories are of interest to users? What do the users expect? Which information is no longer of interest to the users? Who is in charge of the tasks? Who monitors the task implementation? Who are the users of the library services? Where does the action mainly take place? When do we act? When should we act?
When should the action end? How is the library organized? What is it like to study in there? Are we going to communicate our organizational and operational message by displays, images? How are we going to organize the information that we want to convey, are we going to use a deductive or an inductive presentation? How should the library stocks be developed and in what direction? The answer to these questions and others might yield the solutions for the improvement of the library circumstances.
Such data can be obtained through in-house discussions with the staff or users, opinion polls among the users, etc. SWOT Analysis The library decisions should be made in the wake of a comprehensive analysis preceding the implementation of the quality management system required by the need of improvement. This analysis should take into consideration both internal environment issues strong and weak library points which can support or affect, respectively, the project implementation , as well as external environmental ones opportunities opened to libraries in their environment, outside threats.
The name of this analysis is given by the initials of the English words: - Strengths positive elements, strong points for the library which offers its incentives ; - Weaknesses weak points, which can influence the library work ; - Opportunities opportunities, external environmental elements which might be to its advantage ; - Threats opposed to opportunities are threats which might cause the library certain disadvantages. Out of the most important opportunities one could mention: 5. Services offered by the academic libraries common ones : - General information.
The main objectives an academic library should take into consideration for the improvements of its work are: - Improvement and diversification of services provided; - Development of collections depending on users needs ; - Stocking, processing and organization of collections; - Collection preservation ; - Improvement of existing technical material equipment; - Acquisition of modern means of information on a national and international plane; - Continuous development of staff professional training; - Participation in internal and international events i.
Conclusions All the efforts for the improvement of the quality provided to users are directed towards the Excellence of Quality EQ of the services provided. The Excellence of Quality represents an ideal that the management of the libraries should aim at and whose main component should be the quality of service provision. The Excellence of Quality of the services provided may be considered a modern and complex doctrine whose actual accomplishment greatly depends on the competitiveness of the services and definitely provides a high-performance and long-term profitable activity.
The assessment criteria, within the excellence models, provide a basis for the organization to compare its own performances against the performances of other similar organizations. Cristian, A. Mandeal, R. Oprean, C. Kifor, C. Sibiu: Universitatea Lucian Blaga, , p. Studii de biblioteconomie. Kondo, Y. L, , p. Stoica, I. In this regard, defining the customer requirements and evaluating their accomplishment are important. The paper aims to establish the main actions and tools for the university library Customerrelated processes.
The specific objectives of the study are: identifying the best practices on the customer-related approach in university libraries; diagnosing the situation of the Transilvania University Library concerning the relationship with theirs customers and establishing the main changes for improving quality of Customer-related processes. Key words: university library, customer-related approach, quality management tools. Fulfilling the university mission depends on the quality of library services and how it manages the continuous harmonization of services offered by the university requirements.
Achieving this requirement involves implementation of customer orientation in library management. Aspects of library customer relationship began to be studied from the 80s, from a marketing perspective. In the last decade, the customer relationship approach is integrated into aspects regarding quality management in libraries, a topic which is the subject of extensive theoretical and practical studies.
In this context, the development of customerrelated processes is defined as a priority area of interest, providing the information needed to measure satisfaction and the continuous adaptation of library services to customers needs. In Romania, until now the offer of university library services was not based on scientific methods of investigation of clients requirements; the decisions to improve library services and processes were based on other criteria, particularly concerning the introduction of information technology.
Starting from the need to address the library's activity from customer perspective, the paper proposes setting out key activities and tools for the university library Customer-related processes. The study covers theoretical and applied research and it has as specific objectives: identifying the best practices on the customer-related approach in university libraries; diagnosing the situation of the Transilvania University Library concerning the relationship with theirs customers and establishing the main changes for improving quality of Customerrelated processes.
The methodology of the research includes the study of documents and interview, methods of investigation specific to diagnostic analysis. Information from scientific publications about relationship with customers and universities websites has been also used. Achievements and best practices on customer-related approach in university libraries Customer s satisfaction has begun to emerge as a problem of organization in the late 70's, when competition increased and led to the displacement of market forces ratio, from producer to consumer.
Studies focused on meeting customer requirements have led to the emergence of marketing as a distinct field of theory and practice. The central concept in marketing is the customer, and the purpose is its satisfaction. Marketing aims at designing and providing services and products appropriate to customer requirements. Concepts as developing relationships with customers, developing organization identity and branding, communication, pricing policies, etc. The concept began to be applied in libraries worldwide with over 20 years ago.
Many papers describe the reasons and achievements of university libraries in the field of marketing . Most applications were targeted to identify customer needs and feedback from customers.
University libraries have created mechanisms for communicating with customers in order to meet two main objectives: on one hand to provide useful information and access to products and services, on the other hand to collect data from customers. Computerization has facilitated the development of customer communication tools. Thus, the websites of academic libraries have become important tools of communication with consumers of library services, giving them access to the web catalog, database and ejournals, e-reserve with scan images of lectures note, articles, and exam paper for viewing downloading or printing; and support for getting the client's feedback online, conducted by electronic suggestion boxes, client satisfaction surveys, staff feedback etc.
Currently, these tools are widely spread and can be viewed on the universities websites: McGill University Library , Monash University Library , Victoria University Library  are only some illustrative examples. In the last decade, developing applications for customer relationship management in libraries is increasingly linked to quality orientation. The approach of customer relationship, in this context is broader; it is considered the connection between customer satisfaction and other performance criteria and inclusion in the development plans of the library .
In this respect, it is clear the interest in establishing strategies and library policies, elements of identity branding ; a topic of interest is the characterization of library services in economic terms, aiming to achieve a balance between customer satisfaction and resources spent on library services . However, customer remains a central element of management in providing information needed to ensure continuous improvement in the library s performance.
Diagnostic analysis of the customer approach - case study in Transilvania University Library The case study aims to look at how the Transilvania University of Brasov Library deals with the customer relationship. University library's mission is to ensure proper documentation and information necessary for education, recovery and their communication and other services for information users by facilitating diversified and fast access to all categories of sources.
Other papers done previously by the authors ,,, reveal the efforts made by the university in the last decade to improve performance and library services. Currently there is concern for the implementation of quality management in the University Library, enabling better coordination of actions for change, given the consistency with university requirements and efficient use of resources. This paper is circumscribed in this objective. Library's customers, with the meaning given to the concept in management, are beneficiaries of services provided by the library, namely: individuals, including undergraduate and postgraduate students, academic staff, researchers and other categories; faculties or other departments of the university; other libraries and extern customers.
Each of these three segments has specific needs and the library services are different on categories of users. The University library structure  is adapted to the services provided, and includes: acquisitions and interlibrary exchange publications, consultation publications at room, loan center, computerization, printing-copying.
For each of the areas of activity are carried out activity plans and reports. Table 1 presents a summary of services provided and statistics and performance indicators of library services, from the Annual reports of the Transilvania University library. Table 1. Summary of the Annual report of the Transilvania University library  Statistical indicators, volumes Services for customers segments Individuals University Departments Other Home borrow users Study room borrowing 7.
Activity records does not reflect the qualitative aspects, there is no information on the quality of services: if users have found or not the required work, the duration of the process of serving, librarians behavior, etc. This weakness was noted in previous studies  being associated to the system of indicators used to characterize the quality of the university library activity. Since the library's main task is to support educational and research processes of the university, have been designated persons - employees of the library - to keep in touch with the faculties, but the results are not up to expectations.
The role of these employees must be strengthened, so the library can support the educational process by establishing and facilitating access to learning support materials. A study on this topic  highlights the need for systematic use of marketing tools for promotion, collaboration and maintaining effective links between library and faculties. It is important to establish clearly what needs to be done, to develop skills for liaison librarians, in order to fulfill their role well, and to assess faculties satisfaction to see if their needs are met.
The services offered by the library must be made known to the users. The tools used for this purpose by the Transilvania University Library are varied: informing the first-year students, information posted on the website and intranet. Among the positive achievements of the library the most important are the facilities offered by the automation system Softlink Liberty3 for: accessing the Online Public Access Catalogue OPAC from any computer with access to the Internet; downloading the available electronic documents; reserving materials or prolonging the due time for returning the materials on loan, on the basis of a personal Conclusions The previous analysis shows that in Transilvania University Library many changes are made for improving the quality of the library services, consisting specially in the computerization of the customer information and access to the library services.
However, the tools for identifying the customer needs and theirs satisfaction evaluation are insufficient or inexistent. Customer orientation is one of the key axes of change in the Transilvania University Library, aiming the continuous harmonization of library services and the university quality objectives. Actions in this regard will be directed to reflect the specific requirements on customer categories, and aim: developing a system to identify the needs and monitor customer satisfaction; improving the relationship library-faculty by developing specific programs.
Achieving these targets is the subject of distinct studies, in progress or that will be initiated by the university library, integrated in the program of implementing quality management in the library. Solving problems takes into account best practices worldwide, and the resources available to university. Bakeri Abu Bakar, A. Marketing library and information services: international perspectives.
Library metrics and expectations for the evaluation of digital libraries, Available at: Metrics. Popescu, M. Available at: 9. The digitised books from the Gallica catalogue are very old and barely accessible to the public. They have been edited, the most part of them, at the beginning of the 19th century. This database is an excellent research tool. Based on the author's archive expertise, the paper has as main goal the presentation of the Clichy heritage through three historical subjects, extracted from the above mentioned resources.
The book presents three case studies: a name Boisson de St. Roard, and a place - The Revolt Road. The new technologies offered by the Internet open in this way doors considered until now closed to the public. Key words: digitisation, old books, Gallica, new technologies. Aujourd hui, je vous propose trois exemples de recherche : Un ancien Maire de Clichy-la-Garenne, Une entreprise, Un lieu.
Qui est ce Buisson de St-Sulpice? Et sa descendance? Buisson s abonne au journal des Maires qui rappelle ce qu est l administration municipale. En , les deux partis ne s entendant pas, le brevet sera caduc. Quant il constate qu elles sont abordables, il devient un acheteur enthousiaste. Pour le remercier, le jeune Renoir peint un remarquable portrait d Augustine.
ROARD qui l a plante d arbres. Tous ses symboles pour le reflet de son travail. C est l affluence! Un accident. NOTE .
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This phenomenon does not only affect librarians practices. It forces them to reshape their social role and legitimacy. That is why bringing innovation today means less technical solutions than a new search for professional identity and political reflections. The diversity of the public pushes us to embrace the society as a whole. In such a context, professional defensive reactions and homogeneity as such as out of date political representations are brakes on innovation.
Today, more than ever, innovating in libraries raises the question of their place in the society. Keywords: innovation, management, professional identity, public policy. Quelle innovation ai-je bien eu le temps d apporter? Mais l espace social peut alors prendre le pas sur le projet culturel. Aujourd hui je dirais exactement l inverse.
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Encourager l ouverture 4. Only a very few structures generously share advice for these volunteers of the literary priesthood, to go to the end of the night, of the trip that makes from a text an act of complete consistency. We are the partisans of this guild and involve each of our authors in a book chain by making them to participate in the physical design of their own work, building the link between the mind and the body.
Approching this original pattern, our challenge is to obtain recognision for the quality of our step from the networks of book experts. If we open a small door for those projects outside academic standards, the quantity of prints would be small, far from the mass production.
The booksellers are struggling to be the relay of these initiatives, not profitable enough, and then a question arises for us, the librarians who have a public service mission as well: Could the librarians replace the work of booksellers, taking time to promote this kind of authentic approach that links form and content, word and paper, pen and glue, because only the written word leaves trace through time? Key words: association, publishing house, book, creative writing, volunteering.
One of the main aims of the NALIS project is to be done a retrospective conversion of traditional catalogues and implementing software for digital objects. So the process of retrospective conversion was linked with the process of digitalization. There will be presented the process of planning the retrospective conversion as well as the way it will be used for digitalization of collections.
Key words: retrospective conversion, digitalization, bibliographic control. Implementing information technologies in libraries a half century ago entirely changed their work. Integrated library and information systems allow various information resources to be catalogued, saved, administrated and presented to users. Contemporary integrated library and information systems facilitate the work of librarians, allowing them the ability to order and acquire, receive and invoice, catalog, circulate, track and shelve materials . All possibilities of contemporary library systems can be used if the information about library collections is converted in the e-catalogue.
The process of conversion is called retrospective conversion. Retrospective conversion is converting data from card and printed catalogues into machine readable form .
Most of national and university libraries in the world finished this task but most of libraries on the Balkan Peninsula are faced with it today. The University Library St. Kliment Ohriski was established in at the same time as the Institute of Higher Education in Sofia. Its main task for more than years is to insure the library and scientific and information servicing of professors and students from Sofia University St. Kliment Ohriski. It is one of the biggest libraries in Bulgaria, just behind the.
Kiril i Metodii. The Sofia University Library is a modern library and information complex which consists of Central Library and 24 branch libraries at faculties, departments and specialties. Its collections consist of more than volumes. It owns annually increase with titles in volumes. There are received books, serials and e-resources by purchase, gift, exchange and deposit. The University Library is the first fully automated library in Bulgaria. The Bulgarian automated system was implemented in and then the library migrated to the integrated library and information system ALEPH two years later, it was in production up to the middle of All processes in the library are automated.
Traditional catalogues are maintained up to then e-catalogue only exists. The University Library successfully migrated to the integrated library and information system ALEPH in Implementation of the new system entirely changed the work of the library not only in cataloguing but in circulation also. A project for creating National Academic Library and Information System supported by foundation America for Bulgaria started in the same year.
The main mission of the project is to answer the growing need of the modern Bulgarian society for the following: Functional integration of the library and information systems and catalogue registers of the research institutes, universities and some bigger book repositories [creating union catalogue, note by the author]; High awareness in the field of research and scientific activity; Application of up-to-date information service models meeting world standards; International cooperation in the field of the library information and communication systems .
Presenting the collections of participating libraries in e-catalogue will lead to adequate library and information servicing of users, will facilitate the possibilities for interlibrary loan and document delivery service. That s why one of the main aims of the project is making a retrospective conversion. Brian Scotlander  point out the necessary circumstances which must be fulfilled by the library before beginning the process of retrospective conversion: a. According to the same author  the stages of the process of recon of catalogues are: 1. Establish parameters of the recon project i.
The University Library has made retrospective conversion in the process of lending since when a user wants to borrow a book, which is not in the e-catalogue, then librarians make a short record which include Cyrillic alphabet is used in Bulgaria that s why the library has three catalogues catalogue of Bulgarian Cyrillic, foreign Cyrillic Russian, Serbian etc. The greater part of collections is in Bulgarian but the most valuable collections are on Roman alphabet. Catalogues are also divided chronologically catalogue of books entered in the University library in the period this is the so called Historical catalogue, which was created by the first Director of the University Library academician Stoyan Argirov; the bibliographic description was made by the Prussian instructions and consisted of short information including author, title, place of publication and year of publishing and the catalogue of books entered the University Library in the period a union catalogue of the University Library which presents the collections of the Central Library and branch libraries; the information is fuller than those in the Historical catalogue.
That is why the scope was oriented to the more valuable and important collection for the Bulgarian scientific society. Retrospective conversion of the books catalogue entered in the University Library in the period began. In taking the decision which of both catalogues to be chosen was considered the fact that in the process of retrospective conversion took part librarians who did not work at the Cataloguing department that was the most important factor which lead to begin with the catalogue where bibliographic descriptions are fuller, more clearly and near to contemporary standards.
Here I have to say there is a difference between recon of collections and recon of catalogues. In the process of recon of collections we re-catalogue by using the de visu method . Recon of catalogues is made on the base of traditional catalogues by rewriting and expanding data from international union catalogues, exchange of records and National libraries e-catalogues.
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Determine standards for the retrospective conversion process. Implementing the integrated library and information system the University Library began to use MARC 21 format for its records thus was fulfilled another one of the circumstances for retrospective conversion that is standardizing of entered information.
Standards for bibliographic description have been changed in Bulgaria during the years so all descriptions in machinereadable form must be created according to contemporary standards for bibliographic description. In contrast to other libraries in the country which began to use Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules the University Library continue to use the national standards for bibliographic description which are based on the ISBD standards.
Information in cataloguing cards is not full so there is a need of expanding data from diverse resources like OCLC Worldcat, e-catalogues of National libraries, union catalogues of various countries. Two authority files are maintained in the University Library authority file of names and subject authority file.
The control of entered records is ensured by authority files and indexes. Identify retrospective conversion options. There are three main options for making a retrospective conversion recon made by librarians in the library, recon made by outside organization; combined recon by outside organization and librarians. Develop plan for action. There is a need to be discussed who will be included in the recon, to be made a schedule for teaching, instructions to be written as well as supporting materials. After completing all these stages is coming the last one. Implementing the project, monitoring progress, fine tune procedures and completing the project.
The University Library decided the recon to be made by librarians. Fifty colleagues were gradually taught and began to work after the start of the project in the library, some students from specialty Library and information sciences from Philosophy Faculty at Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski also took part. Librarians whose main work is not cataloguing are part of the project so it was planned colleagues from the cataloguing department to check out the created records, to correct them and return them for correcting in the system by the cataloger.
Thus is controlled the entered data in the integrated library and information system. Thanks to this project fifty librarians were gradually included in the project. They made over records for 8 months. The late process of retrospective conversion has its good sides as integrating the processes of recon and digitizing and taking decisions which will make easier and will complete both processes in Bulgaria and in Sofia University Library.
What is digital conversion? Digital conversion is the process of converting traditional information into digital form . Physical saving of digital copies of traditional documents is not enough for preserving the cultural heritage for future generations. Records format which present the digital documents date quickly.
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To avoid lost of information, preserving of digital materials cannot be thought as preserving of fixed objects which must be saved in their contemporary form. Preserving of digital materials is defining of content and attributes at first which must be presented in future systems . Very important role has the software for completing this circumstances which will help to be preserved digital documents as well as metadata which is indivisible part of it. It is necessary to write a plan just like the plan of the retrospective conversion before traditional library documents are digitized.
Establish the parameters of digitalization which documents must be digitized keeping in mind the copyright law. After entering the bibliographic information for the library collections very fast and easy can be downloaded and systemized data for documents which must be digitized. The University Library began digitization of Bulgarian early printed books and serials, as well as the main edition of Sofia University St.
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