However, wealthier countries are not immune from energy interruptions. More frequent extreme weather events, resulting from climate change, can threaten the integrity of health systems worldwide. In contrast, many small rural and public facilities in resource-constrained settings suffer from unreliable energy networks, impeding health service provision.
A recent study of 11 major sub-Saharan African countries found that roughly 1 in 4 health facilities had no access to electricity, and only about one-third of hospitals had reliable electricity access Adair-Rohani et al, Unreliable electricity access leads to vaccine spoilage, interruptions in the use of essential medical and diagnostic devices, and lack of even the most basic lighting and communications for maternal delivery and emergency procedures.
Tweaking the Tiny Electrical Charges Inside Cells Can Fight Infection
As disease patterns change, even more energy is required to expand services for prevention and treatment of non-communicable diseases NCDs. These include the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer, cervical cancer, and other NCDs where women have a particularly heavy burden. The quality of energy access in health facilities may have crosscutting impacts on other aspects of health services.
Because water content has a large impact on the fluids dielectric constant, the recommended velocity for hydrocarbon fluids containing water should be limited to 1 meter per second. Bonding and earthing are the usual ways charge buildup can be prevented. The flowing movement of flammable liquids like gasoline inside a pipe can build up static electricity. Non-polar liquids such as gasoline , toluene , xylene , diesel , kerosene and light crude oils exhibit significant ability for charge accumulation and charge retention during high velocity flow.
Electrostatic discharges can ignite the fuel vapor. Different fuels have different flammable limits and require different levels of electrostatic discharge energy to ignite. Electrostatic discharge while fueling with gasoline is a present danger at gas stations. New grounding technologies, the use of conducting materials, and the addition of anti-static additives help to prevent or safely dissipate the buildup of static electricity.
The flowing movement of gases in pipes alone creates little, if any, static electricity. Due to the extremely low humidity in extraterrestrial environments, very large static charges can accumulate, causing a major hazard for the complex electronics used in space exploration vehicles.
Static electricity is thought to be a particular hazard for astronauts on planned missions to the Moon and Mars.
Walking over the extremely dry terrain could cause them to accumulate a significant amount of charge; reaching out to open the airlock on their return could cause a large static discharge, potentially damaging sensitive electronics. A static discharge in the presence of air or oxygen can create ozone. Ozone can degrade rubber parts. Many elastomers are sensitive to ozone cracking. Exposure to ozone creates deep penetrative cracks in critical components like gaskets and O-rings.
Fuel lines are also susceptible to the problem unless preventive action is taken. Preventive measures include adding anti-ozonants to the rubber mix, or using an ozone-resistant elastomer. Fires from cracked fuel lines have been a problem on vehicles, especially in the engine compartments where ozone can be produced by electrical equipment. The energy released in a static electricity discharge may vary over a wide range.
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As little as 0. The energy needed to damage most electronic devices [ specify ] is between 2 and nanojoules. A relatively small energy, often as little as 0. For the common industrial hydrocarbon gases and solvents, the minimum ignition energy required for ignition of vapor—air mixture is lowest for the vapor concentration roughly in the middle between the lower explosive limit and the upper explosive limit , and rapidly increases as the concentration deviates from this optimum to either side.
Aerosols of flammable liquids may be ignited well below their flash point. Similarly, presence of foam on the surface of a flammable liquid significantly increases ignitability. Simultaneous presence of flammable vapors and flammable dust can significantly decrease the ignition energy; a mere 1 vol. Higher than normal oxygen content in atmosphere also significantly lowers the ignition energy. There are five types of electrical discharges :. Static electricity is commonly used in xerography , air filters particularly electrostatic precipitators , paint sprayers , powder testing.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the science of static charges, see Electrostatics. Electrical network. Covariant formulation. Electromagnetic tensor stress—energy tensor.
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Several previous scientific papers have quantified global-scale greenhouse gas GHG emissions avoided by nuclear power, but to our knowledge, ours is the first to quantify avoided human deaths as well as avoided GHG emissions on global, regional, and national scales. The paper demonstrates that without nuclear power, it will be even harder to mitigate human-caused climate change and air pollution. This is fundamentally because historical energy production data reveal that if nuclear power never existed, the energy it supplied almost certainly would have been supplied by fossil fuels instead overwhelmingly coal , which cause much higher air pollution-related mortality and GHG emissions per unit energy produced ref.
Figure 2. Using historical electricity production data and mortality and emission factors from the peer-reviewed scientific literature, we found that despite the three major nuclear accidents the world has experienced, nuclear power prevented an average of over 1. This amounts to at least hundreds and more likely thousands of times more deaths than it caused. An average of 76, deaths per year were avoided annually between see Fig.
This is about 15 times more emissions than it caused. It is equivalent to the past 35 years of CO 2 emissions from coal burning in the U. To compute potential future effects, we started with the projected nuclear energy supply for from an assessment made by the UN International Atomic Energy Agency that takes into account the effects of the Fukushima accident ref. We assume that the projected nuclear energy is canceled and replaced entirely by energy from either coal or natural gas.
We calculate that this nuclear phaseout scenario leads to an average of , million deaths and GtCO 2 -eq emissions globally the high-end values reflect the all coal case; see Figs. Figure 3. Cumulative net GHG emissions prevented assuming nuclear power replaces fossil fuels. The three panels are ordered the same as in Fig. Error bars reflect the ranges for the fossil fuel emission factors listed in Table 1 of our paper.
The largest uncertainties and limitations of our analysis stem from the assumed values for impacts per unit electric energy produced. However, we emphasize that our results for both prevented mortality and prevented GHG emissions could be substantial underestimates.
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