By this time they gradually learned to recognize individual words. First the text was written by a teacher or his assistant and then copied by the student.
Later they would write from dictation and probably eventually from memory. A student learned to set their heart not on pleasures, but upon hearing the words wisdom of their ancestors. With a developed respect for elders and wisdom, students often bestowed blessings of good health, the attainment of honor, and the goodness of elderhood and a happy life upon their Sebai. I am one who is eminently quiet, who controls his temper, being tight-lipped and devoid of vociferousness, namely, this scribe that I am, who is valuable to his [Niswt king ] and most expert in his calling.
In general, social mobility was contingent upon the skills acquired within each respective calling or profession. To the less privileged, scribal education was a form of socio-economic mobility; however, upward as well as downward mobility occurred quite frequently, regardless of socio-economic standing. The educational system had an open admission policy irrespective of heredity.
Although sons were taught to follow the professions of their fathers, efficiency and not heredity dictated the elevation of competent scribes to available positions. The language of father-son succession is thus used to break the rule as much as to hold it. It was seen as a process of the transformation of the learner who progressed through successive stages of rebirth. The masters were alert and in a position to react to and to nurture the direct experience of students in order that they could experience to learn higher level lessons. Good speech and conduct, that is, speaking and doing Maat, engendered both internal and external equilibrium with divine order.
In this regard, the Instructions of Amenemope is relevant. Composed during the 18th dynasty c. The influence of Amenemope was mediated through scribal education in the capital city of Jerusalem. Keep your tongue safe from words of distraction, and you will be the loved one of the people, [and] then you will find your place within the temple. E and the Instructions of Ptahhotep, composed during or after the sixth dynasty c. The Instructions of Ptahhotep is a wealth of knowledge on the virtues of humility and patience in the face of confrontation; the use of cautiousness and the power of speech; the trappings of greed, pride, and arrogance; and why the learner should council with both the wise and the ignorant.
Be silent—this is better than tef tef idle talk or chatter. Speak only if you know that you can unravel the difficulty. His eyes see, his ears are pleased at hearing what is good for his son, who does right and is devoid free of falsehood. And everyone that is so instructed should talk to his children and they again to theirs. Follow the example of your forefathers i. Read their sayings and be guided by them. E contained twenty statements about Antef, and in each of them, he demonstrates that he has put into practice precepts that were contained in the ancestral wisdom texts of the sages.
Ani, speaking to his son, states, pour libation to your father and to your mother, who rest in the cemetery in the mountain. The water is a witness for those who offer what is due, or what is acceptable to the [deities]. Fail not to do this… what you do your son shall do for you. The ancestral wisdom texts exhibit the timelessness of ancestral wisdom, how its truths can be used to facilitate human development, and that the object or vision of education is to develop speakers and doers of truth. The ancient Egyptian educational system was functional, that is, a blend of theory and practice, and it could be characterized as a holistic education.
Carruthers and Leon C. Harris Eds. See Hilliard for a discussion on this text. See Erman, The Ancient Egyptians, p. Parkinson, Voices from Ancient Egypt Norman, , p. The brother in charge, the landlord Ptah-hotep, say: Ayo, Ptah wit tha two crocodiles, my lord! Gettin' old makes people senile. People decay and start to fall off from how they was when they was young.
Some kind of mess always be breakin' a brotha back every day; sight fails, ya ear can't hear no more; ya strength be gon' just like that, it don't neva stop. You stop bumpin' ya gums, and stop talkin' all that mess; ya dome don't be good for nothin', and ya cain't barely remember yesterday even. Ya whole body take a L. What you thought was all good turn to all bad that is bad meaning bad not bad meaning good ; you can't taste nothin'.
Gettin' old make folk str8 miserable; ya nose get stopped up, and u can't even breathe no mo. Whether u standin' or sittin' it's like "yo Who gon' let me tell it so i can break it down for you like how they used to do back in tha day? And the flows busted by tha ntr, who gon' let me bust one?
So i can blow up tha spot and break it down for those that got tha good sense ta listen; kick twice tha flows. Tha krunkest ntr be like: Tell 'em how WE used ta kick it back in tha day! Teach 'em tha flows from tha old skool. Cause that'll big up the new skool heads. Y'all know, them flows that make u get hype, like "that's my isht" and make u wanna put it on repeat.
Let's spit, tha flows spit by tha ruler, tha predecessor, Ptah's ace-boom-coom, tha golden child, the first-born of his race, the landlord that run isht, who be doin' tha mathmatics for fools who don't know so that they learn to bust a ill flow. Whoever take heed str8, whoever ain't down widdit, that's they loss. He say to his seed: Don't neva front like u all that just cause u know somethin'; build wit ignant folk like how u would with folk that done learned somethin'; cause it and no end to tha lyricism that a lyricist could be like he got tha perfect flow.
But tight flows harder to find than ice, cause it's them folk in Afrika that be gettin' hustled into diggin' for it. If you find a ill em-cee in tha cypher while he hot, and if he or she could bust u up in a battle, play it cool and chill out, and don't step to him like that. Cause you know he ain't just gon' up and let u cut him off while he flowin' cause u yaself know that ain't protocol; and that don't show nothin' but that u can't stay cool calm and collect, when somebody start flippin'. But if it come down to it and you gotta go at it while he hot, still, you play cool like it's all good.
Cause u gon' get the advantage if you just peep what he sayin' while he flappin' his jaws, right? At that time tha head in the cypher might be like "Oh he raw," but u play it cool. If you find a disputant while he is hot, do not despise him because you are not of the same opinion. Be not angry against him when he is wrong; away with such a thing. He fights against himself; require him not further to flatter your feelings. Do not amuse yourself with the spectacle which you have before you; it is odious, it is mean, it is the part of a despicable soul so to do.
As soon as you let yourself be moved by your feelings, combat this desire as a thing that is reproved by the great. If you have, as leader, to decide on the conduct of a great number of men, seek the most perfect manner of doing so that your own conduct may be without reproach. Justice is great, invariable, and assured; it has not been disturbed since the age of Ptah. To throw obstacles in the way of the laws is to open the way before violence. Shall that which is below gain the upper hand, if the unjust does not attain to the place of justice?
Even he who says: I take for myself, of my own free-will; but says not: I take by virtue of my authority. The limitations of justice are invariable; such is the instruction which every man receives from his father. Inspire not men with fear, else Ptah will fight against you in the same manner.
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If any one asserts that he lives by such means, Ptah will take away the bread from his mouth; if any one asserts that he enriches himself thereby, Ptah says: I may take those riches to myself. If any one asserts that he beats others, Ptah will end by reducing him to impotence. Let no one inspire men with fear; this is the will of Ptah. Let one provide sustenance for them in the lap of peace; it will then be that they will freely give what has been torn from them by terror.
If you are among the persons seated at meat in the house of a greater man than yourself, take that which he gives you, bowing to the ground. Regard that which is placed before you, but point not at it; regard it not frequently; he is a blameworthy person who departs from this rule. Speak not to the great man more than he requires, for one knows not what may be displeasing to him.
Speak when he invites you and your worth will be pleasing. As for the great man who has plenty of means of existence, his conduct is as he himself wishes. He does that which pleases him; if he desires to repose, he realizes his intention. The great man stretching forth his hand does that to which other men do not attain. But as the means of existence are under the will of Ptah, one can not rebel against it. If you are one of those who bring the messages of one great man to another, conform yourself exactly to that wherewith he has charged you; perform for him the commission as he has enjoined you.
Beware of altering in speaking the offensive words which one great person addresses to another; he who perverts the trustfulness of his way, in order to repeat only what produces pleasure in the words of every man, great or small, is a detestable person. If you are a farmer, gather the crops in the field which the great Ptah has given you, do not boast in the house of your neighbors; it is better to make oneself dreaded by one's deeds. As for him who, master of his own way of acting, being all-powerful, seizes the goods of others like a crocodile in the midst even of watchment, his children are an object of malediction, of scorn, and of hatred on account of it, while his father is grievously distressed, and as for the mother who has borne him, happy is another rather than herself.
But a man becomes a god when he is chief of a tribe which has confidence in following him. If you abase yourself in obeying a superior, your conduct is entirely good before Ptah. Knowing who you ought to obey and who you ought to command, do not lift up your heart against him. As you know that in him is authority, be respectful toward him as belonging to him.
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Wealth comes only at Ptah's own good-will, and his caprice only is the law; as for him who. Ptah, who has created his superiority, turns himself from him and he is overthrown. Be active during the time of your existence, do no more than is commanded. Do not spoil the time of your activity; he is a blameworthy person who makes a bad use of his moments.
Do not lose the daily opportunity of increasing that which your house possesses. Activity produces riches, and riches do not endure when it slackens. If you are a wise man, bring up a son who shall be pleasing to Ptah. If he conforms his conduct to your way and occupies himself with your affairs as is right, do to him all the good you can; he is your son, a person attached to you whom your own self has begotten. Separate not your heart from him But if he conducts himself ill and transgresses your wish, if he rejects all counsel, if his mouth goes according to the evil word, strike him on the mouth in return.
Give orders without hesitation to those who do wrong, to him whose temper is turbulent; and he will not deviate from the straight path, and there will be no obstacle to interrupt the way. If you are employed in the larit, stand or sit rather than walk about. Lay down rules for yourself from the first: not to absent yourself even when weariness overtakes you.
Keep an eye on him who enters announcing that what he asks is secret; what is entrusted to you is above appreciation, and all contrary argument is a matter to be rejected. He is a god who penetrates into a place where no relaxation of the rules is made for the privileged. If you are with people who display for you an extreme affection, saying: "Aspiration of my heart, aspiration of my heart, where there is no remedy! That which is said in your heart, let it be realized by springing up spontaneously. Sovereign master, I give myself to your opinion. Your name is approved without speaking. Your body is full of vigor, your face is above your neighbors.
But he who. While the man who is master of his soul is superior to those whom Ptah has loaded with his gifts; the man who obeys his passion is under the power of his wife. Declare your line of conduct without reticence; give your opinion in the council of your lord; while there are people who turn back upon their own words when they speak, so as not to offend him who has put forward a statement, and answer not in this fashion: "He is the great man who will recognize the error of another; and when he shall raise his voice to oppose the other about it he will keep silence after what I have said.
If you are a leader of peace, listen to the discourse of the petitioner. Be not abrupt with him; that would trouble him. Say not to him: "You have already recounted this. As for being abrupt with the complainant because he described what passed when the injury was done, instead of complaining of the injury itself let it not be! The way to obtain a clear explanation is to listen with kindness. If you desire to excite respect within the house you enter, for example the house of a superior, a friend, or any person of consideration, in short everywhere where you enter, keep yourself from making advances to a woman, for there is nothing good in so doing.
There is no prudence in taking part in it, and thousands of men destroy themselves in order to enjoy a moment, brief as a dream, while they gain death, so as to know it. It is a villainous intention, that of a man who thus excites himself; if he goes on to carry it out, his mind abandons him.
For as for him who is without repugnance for such an act, there is no good sense at all in him. If you desire that your conduct should be good and preserved from all evil, keep yourself from every attack of bad humor. It is a fatal malady which leads to discord, and there is no longer any existence for him who gives way to it.
For it introduces discord between fathers and mothers, as well as between brothers and sisters; it causes the wife and the husband to hate each other; it contains all kinds of wickedness, it embodies all kinds of wrong. When a man has established his just equilibrium and walks in this path, there where he makes his dwelling, there is no room for bad humor. Be not of an irritable temper as regards that which happens at your side; grumble not over your own affairs. Be not of an irritable temper in regard to your neighbors; better is a compliment to that which displeases than rudeness.
It is wrong to get into a passion with one's neighbors, to be no longer master of one's words. When there is only a little irritation, one creates for oneself an affliction for the time when one will again be cool. If you are wise, look after your house; love your wife without alloy.
Fill her stomach, clothe her back; these are the cares to be bestowed on her person. Caress her, fulfil her desires during the time of her existence; it is a kindness which does honor to its possessor. Be not brutal; tact will influence her better than violence; her. It is that which fixes her in your house; if you repel her, it is an abyss. Open your arms for her, respond to her arms; call her, display to her your love. Treat your dependents well, in so far as it belongs to you to do so; and it belongs to those whom Ptah has favored.
If any one fails in treating his dependents well it is said: "He is a person. When there comes the necessity of showing zeal, it will then be the dependents themselves who say: "Come on, come on," if good treatment has not quitted the place; if it has quitted it, the dependents are defaulters.
Do not repeat any extravagance of language; do not listen to it; it is a thing which has escaped from a hasty mouth. If it is repeated, look, without hearing it, toward the earth; say nothing in regard to it. Cause him who speaks to you to know what is just, even him who provokes to injustice; cause that which is just to be done, cause it to triumph.
As for that which is hateful according to the law, condemn it by unveiling it. If you are a wise man, sitting in the council of your lord, direct your thought toward that which is wise. Be silent rather than scatter your words. When you speak, know that which can be brought against you. To speak in the council is an art, and speech is criticized more than any other labor; it is contradiction which puts it to the proof. If you are powerful, respect knowledge and calmness of language. Command only to direct; to be absolute is to run into evil. Let not your heart be haughty, neither let it be mean.
Do not let your orders remain unsaid and cause your answers to penetrate; but speak without heat, assume a serious countenance. As for the vivacity of an ardent heart, temper it; the gentle man penetrates all obstacles. He who agitates himself all the day long has not a good moment; and he who amuses himself all the day long keeps not his fortune. Aim at fulness like pilots; once one is seated another works, and seeks to obey one's orders.
Disturb not a great man; weaken not the attention of him who is occupied. His care is to embrace his task, and he strips his person through the love which he puts into it. That transports men to Ptah, even the love for the work which they accomplish. Compose then your face even in trouble, that peace may be with you, when agitation is with. These are the people who succeed in what they desire. Teach others to render homage to a great man. If you gather the crop for him among men, cause it to return fully to its owner, at whose hands is your subsistence.
But the gift of affection is worth more than the provisions with which your back is covered. For that which the great man receives from you will enable your house to live, without speaking of the maintenance you enjoy, which you desire to preserve; it is thereby that he extends a beneficent hand, and that in your home good things are added to good things. Let your love pass into the heart of those who love you; cause those about you to be loving and obedient. If you are a son of the guardians deputed to watch over the public tranquillity, execute your commission without knowing its meaning, and speak with firmness.
Substitute not for that which the instructor has said what you believe to be his intention; the great use words as it suits them. Your part is to transmit rather than to comment upon. If you are annoyed at a thing, if you are tormented by someone who is acting within his right, get out of his sight, and remember him no more when he has ceased to address you.
If you have become great after having been little, if you have become rich after having been poor, when you are at the head of the city, know how not to take advantage of the fact that you have reached the first rank, harden not your heart because of your elevation; you are become only the administrator, the prefect, of the provisions which belong to Ptah.
Put not behind you the neighbor who is like you; be unto him as a companion. Bend your back before your superior. You are attached to the palace of the king; your house is established in its fortune, and your profits are as is fitting. Yet a man is annoyed at having an authority above himself, and passes the period of life in being vexed thereat. Although that hurts not your. Do not plunder the house of your neighbors, seize not by force the goods which are beside you. Exclaim not then against that which you hear, and do not feel humiliated. It is necessary to reflect when one is hindered by it that the pressure of authority is felt also by one's neighbor.
Do not make. Let it not. If you aim at polished manners, call not him whom you accost. Converse with him especially in such a way as not to annoy him. Enter on a discussion with him only after having left him time to saturate his mind with the subject of the conversation. If he lets his ignorance display itself, and if he gives you all opportunity to disgrace him, treat him with courtesy rather; proceed not to drive him into a corner; do not. Let your countenance be cheerful during the time of your existence.
When we see one departing from the storehouse who has entered in order to bring his share of provision, with his face contracted, it shows that his stomach is empty and that authority is offensive to him. Let not that happen to you; it is. Know those who are faithful to you when you are in low estate. Your merit then is worth more than those who did you honor. That is of more importance than his high rank; for this is a matter which passes from one to another. The merit of one's son is advantageous to the father, and that which he really is, is worth more than the remembrance of his father's rank.
Distinguish the superintendent who directs from the workman, for manual labor is little elevated; the inaction of the hands is honorable. If a man is not in the evil way, that which places him there is the want of subordination to authority. If you take a wife, do not. Let her be more contented than any of her fellow-citizens. She will be attached to you doubly, if her chain is pleasant. Do not repel her; grant that which pleases her; it is to her contentment that she appreciates your work.
If you hear those things which I have said to you, your wisdom will be fully advanced. Although they are the means which are suitable for arriving at the maat, and it is that which makes them precious, their memory would recede from the mouth of men. But thanks to the beauty of their arrangement in rhythm all their words will now be carried without alteration over this earth eternally. That will create a canvass to be embellished, whereof the great will speak, in order to instruct men in its sayings.
After having listened to them the pupil will become a master, even he who shall have properly listened to the sayings because he shall have heard them. Let him win success by placing himself in the first rank; that is for him a position perfect and durable, and he has nothing further to desire forever.
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By knowledge his path is assured, and he is made happy by it on the earth. The wise man is satiated by knowledge; he is a great man through his own merits. His tongue is in accord with his mind; just are his lips when he speaks, his eyes when he gazes, his ears when he hears. The advantage of his son is to do that which is just without deceiving himself. To attend therefore profits the son of him who has attended.
To attend is the result of the fact that one has attended. A teachable auditor is formed, because I have attended. Good when he has attended, good when he speaks, he who has attended has profited, and it is profitable to attend to him who has attended. To attend is worth more than anything else, for it produces love, the good thing that is twice good. The son who accepts the instruction of his father will grow old on that account. What Ptah loves is that one should attend; if one attends not, it is abhorrent to Ptah.
The heart makes itself its own master when it attends and when it does not attend; but if it attends, then his heart is a beneficent master to a man. In attending to instruction, a man loves what he attends to, and to do that which is prescribed is pleasant. When a son attends to his father, it is a twofold joy for both; when wise things are prescribed to him, the son is gentle toward his master. Attending to him who has attended when such things have been prescribed to him, he engraves upon his heart that which is approved by his father; and the recollection of it is preserved in the mouth of the living who exist upon this earth.
When a son receives the instruction of his father there is no error in all his plans. Train your son to be a teachable man whose wisdom is agreeable to the great. Let him direct his mouth according to that which has been said to him; in the docility of a son is discovered his wisdom. His conduct is perfect while error carries away the unteachable.
Tomorrow knowledge will support him, while the ignorant will be destroyed. As for the man without experience who listens not, he effects nothing whatsoever. He sees knowledge in ignorance, profit in loss; he commits all kinds of error, always accordingly choosing the contrary of what is praiseworthy. He lives on that which is mortal, in this fashion. His food is evil words, whereat he is filled with astonishment. That which the great know to be mortal he lives upon every day, flying from that which would be profitable to him, because of the multitude of errors which present themselves before him every day.
A son who attends is like a follower of Horus; he is happy after having attended. He becomes great, he arrives at dignity, he gives the same lesson to his children. Let none innovate upon the precepts of his father; let the same precepts form his lessons to his children. If the teachers allow themselves to be led toward evil principles, verily the people who understand them not will speak accordingly, and that being said to those who are docile they will act accordingly.
Then all the world considers them as masters and they inspire confidence in the public; but their glory endures not so long as would please them. Take not away then a word from the ancient teaching, and add not one; put not one thing in place of another; beware of uncovering the rebellious ideas which arise in you; but teach according to the words of the wise. Attend if you wish to dwell in the mouth of those who shall attend to your words, when you have entered upon the office of master, that your words may be upon our lips.
Let your thoughts be abundant, but let your mouth be under restraint, and you shall argue with the great. Put yourself in unison with the ways of your master; cause him to say: "He is my son," so that those who shall hear it shall say "Praise be to her who has borne him to him! Twice good is the precept of his father, from whom he has issued, from his flesh. What he tells us, let it be fixed in our heart; to satisfy him greatly let us do for him more than he has prescribed. Verily a good son is one of the gifts of Ptah, a son who does even better than he has been told to do.
For his master he does what is satisfactory, putting himself with all his heart on the part of right. So I shall bring it about that your body shall be healthful, that the Pharaoh shall be satisfied with you in all circumstances and that you shall obtain years of life without default.
It has caused me on earth to obtain one hundred and ten years of life, along with the gift of the favor of the Pharoah among the first of those whom their works have ennobled, satisfying the Pharoah in a place of dignity. It is finished, from its beginning to its end, according to that which is found in writing. Source: From: Charles F. II: Egypt, pp. Scanned by: J. Arkenberg, Dept. Newspapers have trumpeted the Ikom monoliths - phallic-shaped pieces of volcanic rock largely ignored for centuries - as being remnants of a glorious civilization made up in equal parts of Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament.
One theory even cites them as evidence that the biblical Garden of Eden lay in what is now Nigeria. Nigerian bloggers have been waxing lyrical about a "high technology civilization based in the present-day location of the Sahara desert". This civilization, whose "hallmarks included the Sphinx and the Great Pyramid of Egypt", was "decimated by the deluge and by the war of the gods of antiquity". The stones themselves, which stand between 1 and 1. The most immediate threats to the stones are erosion, exposure to humidity, heavy rainfall and extreme heat and sun, damage from falling trees and theft and vandalism, WMF says.
In the state capital Calabar giant versions of the stones - 20 or 30 times the size of the originals - were constructed last year to decorate a roundabout. The population knows they come from "somewhere after Ikom", a town several hours? But even 20 or 30 kilometres outside Alok, ask for the "big grey stones" and all you will get is a blank look.
Only a cousin of Alok's Chief Sylvanus Ekoh Akong, located by chance at a makeshift roadside bar, was able to show the way. Chief Sylvanus' monoliths have been given a walled enclosure planted with a huge orange tree, poinsettias and palms. Despite his immense girth, the chief trots from stone to stone, sweat trickling down from under his black felt hat. He reads into the facial features and geometrical carvings everything from the symbols of leadership to the birth of feminism, fertility, war and peace. Dates however, are not the chief's strongpoint - he explains the first archeologists to study the monoliths in a neighbouring village used carbon dating to put their age at around years.
More recent studies, he said, also using carbon dating, have estimated the age of the stones at Alok at years - that is roughly as old as the Egyptian pyramids. A question on the likelihood of subsequent civilisations having built the same type of monolith over a period of years leaves him unfazed. Ten minutes later he has multiplied the age of the stones by and is assuring his visitors the monoliths are , years old.
WMF says the stones date from BC, but it is not clear whether the Fund is using a number supplied by the Nigerian government or whether it has dated the stones independently. Blood sacrifices anywhere near the stones are forbidden. But on September 14 of each year, the eve of the annual yam harvest festival, the stones are decorated with coloured powder. Only pre-pubertal children and post-menopausal women, described locally as "women who no longer go sexual" are allowed to do the decorating.
The colours are white for peace, blue for fertility and red for bravery. The decorating ritual is a highly social occasion. Chief Sylvanus, bursting out of his grey suit, the huge diamante cross round his neck glinting in the sun, held forth on the power of the stones. The site first attracted attention from outsiders in the second half of the last century, but it is only very recently that the stones caused excitement in Nigeria itself. Catherine Acholonu-Olumba, one-time cultural attache to Nigeria's former President Olusegun Obasanjo, is credited with having written a work called "Gram or Garama - sources differ : Stone writings of African Adam".
This book, co-authored with the "IT specialist" Prince Ajay Prabhakar of India, but seemingly not yet published, either advances the theory or is incorrectly credited with advancing the theory that the Garden of Eden lay in what is now Nigeria, and that, by extension, Adam and Eve were Nigerians.
In its justification of the stones' "outstanding universal value", the government states that they "bear a form of writing and a complex system of codified information". The meanings of the codified symbols are known to only the artists," the submission says, before adding that the stones could be West Africa's answer to Britain's Stonehenge. Exemples de syntagmes : Exemple 1 [C. Le pharaon Iuput II vers - av. Les instruments de musique, telles les harpes que l'on retrouve en Egypte et en Afrique centrale. Instruments de musique en Egypte ancienne.
Sur la droite, une harpe. Harpe d'Afrique centrale Gabon. Richard E. L'Univers des Formes, , pp. Elles concernent en particulier :. Brooklyn Museum. La philosophie. Cette argumentation s'appuie sur : D. Et, en effet, pour l'Egyptien le soleil se levait sur sa gauche et se couchait sur sa droite.
La tradition historique que rapporte par exemple Diodore de Sicile vers av. III, Chicago, Wolpof et Wu Xhingzi. Les hommes modernes auraient alors un double berceau l'Afrique et l'Asie. White, permettent d'affirmer encore : "Their anatomy and antiquity constitute strong evidence of modern-human emergence in Africa" et que " Nature, vol. Henshilwood, C. Il date d'environ ans av.
Zuckerkandl et L. Nei et A. Roychoudury, ensuite par Jim Wainscoat, Allan C. Blancs ou Jaunes? Bocoum, A. Lam et M. Tel est l'ancrage de l'Egypte dans l'Ethiopie qu'il fallait circonscrire. Pour celui-ci, les dates Carbone 14 ne commencent en effet que vers - , soit av. Il y a ceux qui font semblant, comme si le Colloque international du Caire n'avait jamais eu lieu. Anselin Martinique , J. Autuori Barcelone, Espagne , M. Bilolo Munich, Allemagne , T. Duquesne Londres, UK , C. Le Quellec Brenessard, France , B.
Mydant-Reynes Toulouse, France , A. Muzzolini Toulouse, France , O. Ndigi Lyon, France , T. Satzinger Vienne, Autriche. Les objections techniques de T. Ehret et H. La puissance du pharaon comme celle du roi africain s'incarne dans celle du taureau. Les textes pharaoniques du Nouvel Empire identifient le pharaon au taureau Urk. IV, : 16 " 9. C'est l'opinion du groupe de chercheurs Eugen Strouhal, M. Gabalah, G. Bonanai, W. Woelfi, A. Nemeckova et S. McKim Malville, F. Wendorf, A. Il insiste sur la dimension cosmique de la science africaine.
Charles S. C'est le cas des auteurs comme V. Struve en Allemagne, R. Gillings aux USA, C. Diop et T. Obenga en Afrique, S. Couchoud en France. Brunet et al. Asfaw et al. Tobias, Michael A. Hart, Paul R. Vrba, Tim D. Coppens, P. Smith and Spencer eds , pp. Liss Inc. Nature, Tim D. Richards, Gen Suwa, F.
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